The latest advances in the critical factors (positive electrode, electrolytes, separators) for sodium-sulfur battery

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Journal Article
Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2019, 792 pp. 797 - 817
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© 2019 The sodium-sulfur (Na/S) batteries have caused widespread concern owing to the advantages of low cost and high energy density, these advantages make them promising in the large-scale energy storage system. But the research progress in this field is still at the beginning stage and confronts with tough challenges, for example, the low sulfur conductivity and polysulfide shuttle effect. Considering Na/S battery is a complicated system whose reaction mechanism between sulfur and sodium is different from the operating temperatures, positive electrode hosts and electrolytes, thus a comprehensive understanding about the electrochemistry of the Na/S batteries that operating in high-temperature, intermediate-temperature and room-temperature is necessary. In addition, the critical factors (positive electrodes, electrolytes, separators) associated with the development of high energy density and high performance Na/S battery, it also need to be analysed for the successful application in the near future. In this review, the working methods of high-temperature Na/S (HT-Na/S) battery, intermediate-temperature Na/S (IT-Na/S) battery and room-temperature Na/S (RT-Na/S) battery will be compared, and also focus on the latest progress of positive electrodes, electrolytes and separators in Na/S batteries. Finally, we provide an outlook on the state of the art for the production of more efficient and reliable Na/S batteries with rational technique.
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