Design Strategies to Enable the Efficient Use of Sodium Metal Anodes in High-Energy Batteries

Publication Type:
Journal Article
Advanced Materials, 2019
Issue Date:
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© 2019 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim Sodium-based batteries have attracted considerable attention and are recognized as ideal candidates for large-scale and low-cost energy storage. Sodium (Na) metal anodes are considered as one of the most promising anodes for next-generation, high-energy, Na-based batteries owing to their high theoretical specific capacity (1166 mA h g−1) and low standard electrode potential. Herein, an overview of the recent developments in Na metal anodes for high-energy batteries is provided. The high reactivity and large volume expansion of Na metal anodes during charge and discharge make the electrode/electrolyte interphase unstable, leading to the formation of Na dendrites, short cycle life, and safety issues. Design strategies to enable the efficient use of Na metal anodes are elucidated, including liquid electrolyte engineering, electrode/electrolyte interface optimization, sophisticated electrode construction, and solid electrolyte engineering. Finally, the remaining challenges and future research directions are identified. It is hoped that this progress report will shape a consistent view of this field and provide inspiration for future research to improve Na metal anodes and enable the development of high-energy sodium batteries.
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