Assessment of evidence for or against contributions of Chlamydia pneumoniae infections to Alzheimer's disease etiology

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Journal Article
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 2020, 83 pp. 22 - 32
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© 2019 Elsevier Inc. Alzheimer's disease, the most common form of dementia, was first formally described in 1907 yet its etiology has remained elusive. Recent proposals that Aβ peptide may be part of the brain immune response have revived longstanding contention about the possibility of causal relationships between brain pathogens and Alzheimer's disease. Research has focused on infectious pathogens that may colonize the brain such as herpes simplex type I. Some researchers have proposed the respiratory bacteria Chlamydia pneumoniae may also be implicated in Alzheimer's disease, however this remains controversial. This review aims to provide a balanced overview of the current evidence and its limitations and future approaches that may resolve controversies. We discuss the evidence from in vitro, animal and human studies proposed to implicate Chlamydia pneumoniae in Alzheimer's disease and other neurological conditions, the potential mechanisms by which the bacterium may contribute to pathogenesis and limitations of previous studies that may explain the inconsistencies in the literature.
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