Immunological Basis of Oxidative Stress-Induced Lung Inflammation in Asthma and COPD

Springer Nature
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Oxidative Stress in Lung Diseases, 2019, pp. 196-223
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Oxidative stress is an outcome of imbalance in production vis-à-vis removal of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The critical role of oxidative stress in several chronic inflammatory diseases has been reported. In this chapter, we have discussed the participation of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory disease of lungs: asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Despite the differences in etiology, immunology, pathogenesis, and clinical symptoms, the involvement of oxidative stress in the manifestation of chronic airway inflammation is the most common feature of both respiratory disorders. First, we have discussed the role of various types of immune cell in the orchestration of oxidative stress-mediated lung inflammation in both asthma and COPD. Next, the contribution of cellular sources of ROS (mitochondria and NADPH oxidase) in activation of cellular signaling pathways, particularly nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), is elaborated. Finally, we have highlighted the involvement of oxidative stress in the manifestation of steroid-stable conditions in patients with severe asthma and COPD. Unraveling the participation of ROS at cellular as well as intracellular events may enhance our understanding of the pathogenesis of both asthma and COPD for the development of effective treatment strategies in the area.
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