Dendrite-Free Sodium Metal Batteries Enabled by the Release of Contact Strain on Flexible and Sodiophilic Matrix.

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Journal Article
Nano letters, 2020, 20, (8), pp. 6112-6119
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The formation of sodium (Na) dendrites during cycling has impeded the practical application of Na metal anodes. Herein, we developed a flexible graphene-based matrix, e.g., a porous reduced graphene oxide (PRGO) film, to support dendrite-free Na nucleation and plating, contributing to high-performance Na metal batteries. The PRGO film possessed outstanding merits of sodiophilicity and flexibility. The sodiophilic PRGO film enabled uniform Na nucleation in the initial electroplating stage. Furthermore, the flexible PRGO film with a small Young's modulus effectively alleviated the texture deformation of electrodeposited Na, leading to a compact and dendrite-free Na deposition layer. The well-maintained Na metal anodes on the PRGO film exhibited superior cyclability, high Coulombic efficiency, and improved energy density in both half-cell and full-cell testing. This work illustrates the great significance of mechanical properties of the supporting matrix for the Na electroplating, which provides a new strategy to develop high-performance dendrite-free Na metal batteries.
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