Chronic Rhinosinusitis and Alzheimer's Disease-A Possible Role for the Nasal Microbiome in Causing Neurodegeneration in the Elderly.

Publication Type:
Journal Article
Int J Mol Sci, 2021, 22, (20), pp. 11207
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Among millions of sufferers of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), the challenge is not only constantly coping with CRS-related symptoms, such as congested nose, sinus pain, and headaches, but also various complications, such as attention difficulties and possible depression. These complications suggest that neural activity in the central nervous system may be altered in those patients, leading to unexpected conditions, such as neurodegeneration in elderly patients. Recently, some studies linked the presence of CRS and cognitive impairments that could further develop into Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly and is characterised by progressive memory loss, cognitive behavioural deficits, and significant personality changes. The microbiome, especially those in the gut, has been recognised as a human organ and plays an important role in the development of various conditions, including AD. However, less attention has been paid to the microbiome in the nasal cavity. Increased nasal inflammatory responses due to CRS may be an initial event that changes local microbiome homeostasis, which may further affect neuronal integrity in the central nervous system resulting in AD. Evidence suggests a potential of β-amyloid deposition starting in olfactory neurons, which is then expanded from the nasal cavity to the central nervous system. In this paper, we reviewed currently available evidence that suggests this potential mechanism to advise the need to investigate the link between these two conditions.
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