Capacitive humidity sensing performance of naphthalene diimide derivatives at ambient temperature

Elsevier BV
Publication Type:
Journal Article
Synthetic Metals, 2021, 275, pp. 116739
Issue Date:
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We report for the first-time the development of capacitive type humidity sensors employing naphthalene diimide derivatives (NDI) as sensing layer. Three different naphthalene diimide derivatives bearing imide side chains of different hydrophilicity were designed, synthesised and characterised. X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analyses gave useful information about structural and thermal behaviour of the newly developed materials, indicating their crystallinity and stability. Atomic force microscopy analysis revealed a variety of morphologies in thin films as a result of the structural properties of the NDIs. Devices bearing NDI layers were fabricated on ceramic substrates with gold interdigitated electrodes spaced 200 µm apart. Humidity sensing performance, as a change in capacitance, was studied upon exposure to a wide range of relative humidity levels (0–95%) at ambient temperature. Importantly, an increase in the capacitance of the sensors was recorded with an increase in relative humidity. The developed sensors exhibited high sensitivity, good long-term stability, excellent reproducibility, and low hysteresis. The sensor performance was also tested against different operating frequencies (250 Hz–2 kHz) to improve linearity, illustrating directions for optimised performance. These results confirm that sensors based on NDIs possess better sensing performance to other types of reported capacitive humidity sensors.
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