From the Kalman Filter to the Particle Filter: A Geometrical Perspective of the Curse of Dimensionality

Hindawi Limited
Publication Type:
Journal Article
Advances in Meteorology, 2016, 2016, pp. 1-18
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The aim of this contribution is to provide a description of the difference between Kalman filter and particle filter when the state space is of high dimension. In the Gaussian framework, KF and PF give the same theoretical result. However, in high dimension and using finite sampling for the Gaussian distribution, the PF is not able to reproduce the solution produced by the KF. This discrepancy is highlighted from the convergence property of the Gaussian law toward a hypersphere: in high dimension, any finite sample of a Gaussian law lies within a hypersphere centered in the mean of the Gaussian law and of radius square-root of the trace of the covariance matrix. This concentration of probability suggests the use of norm as a criterium that discriminates whether a forecast sample can be compatible or not with a given analysis state. The contribution illustrates important characteristics that have to be considered for the high dimension but does not introduce a new approach to face the curse of dimensionality.
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