Partial coherence and amplified internal energy when thermal radiation is sourced within matter
- IOP Publishing
- Publication Type:
- Journal Article
- Journal of Physics Communications, 2022, 6, (6), pp. 1-17
- Issue Date:
Photons excited into ground state modes at finite temperature display partitioning among photon phases, lifetimes and distances travelled since creation. These distributions set the distance from an interface a created photon has some chance of emission. Excited photons have phase velocity set by their mode's propagation index n which sets mode density then internal energy contribution. All photons that strike an interface obliquely if emitted are refracted, and their exit intensities are irreversible except when weak internal attenuation occurs. Attenuation index k near zero degrees is small, so reversibility is approximate. As temperature rises refraction of exiting photons varies. Total emission remains reversible after transitioning through a nonequilibrium state with no other heat inputs. In equilibrium the densities of excitations that create and annihilate photons are in balance with photon densities, and emissivity dependent on n, k, temperature, and internal incident direction. Exit intensities from pure water and crystalline silica are modelled. They contain strong resonant intensities, and match data accurately. Intrinsic resonances formed within liquids and compounds are due to photon modes hybridising with localized excitations, including molecular oscillations and the anharmonic component of lattice distortions. They explain the many resonant spectral intensities seen in remote sensing. Each hybrid oscillator is a photonic virtual bound state whose energy fluctuates between levels separated by hf. Other features addressed are radiance when solid angle changes at exit, anomalous refraction, thermal recycling of internally reflected photons, fluxes within multilayers, and enhanced internal heat flux from phonon drag by photon density gradients under an external temperature gradient.
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