Superlithiophilic N, S-codoped carbon on Ni foam as a stable 3D host for dendrite-free Li metal anodes

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Journal Article
Sustainable Materials and Technologies, 2022, 32
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The commercialization of Li metal anodes (LMAs) has long been obstructed by potential safety concerns and infinite volume changes arising from the inevitable lithium dendrites growth. Herein, we decorate a 3D porous Ni foam with nitrogen, sulfur-codoped carbon (NSC@Ni) through an interfacial polymerization strategy. It can be demonstrated that the synergetic effect of N and S co-doping can significantly improve the lithiophilicity of both pyrrolic and pyridinic N (in N, S-codoped carbon) according to density functional theoretical calculations. Benefitting from the lithiophilic heteroatom doping, the 3D NSC@Ni skeleton can realize a flat and dendrite-free Li deposition. As a result, the NSC@Ni electrode displays a high Coulombic efficiency of ≈98.59% at 2 mA cm−2 with 4 mA h cm−2 for over 153 cycles. And a stable cycle for 780 h at 1 mA cm−2 with 1 mA h cm−2 in NSC@Ni-Li symmetric cell can be realized. Impressively, a full cell assembled with LiFePO4 cathode shows outstanding rate performance and cycling stability at 1 C (300 cycles and capacity retention of 80.74%).
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