Conservation and management of tropical coastal ecosystems

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Ecological Connectivity among Tropical Coastal Ecosystems, 2009, 1, pp. 565 - 605
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All major coastal ecosystems in the tropics are being degraded. The problems include losses of biodiversity, reduced ecosystem functions, and costs to coastal human societies. Declines in speciesï½ abundances, and habitat loss and modi?cation are the result of the demands for aquaculture, port construction, trawling, excessive nutrient loads, over?shing and collecting, sedimentation from catchment activities, invasive species, and climate change. A global response to these changes has been conservation and management approaches that aim to reduce, reverse, and prevent unnatural changes and address their underlying causes. Successes in conservation and management are likely when actions are designed to achieve the fundamental ecological goals of ensuring resilience, maintaining ecosystem connectivity, protecting water quality, conserving species-at-risk, conserving representative samples of species and assemblages, and managing at the appropriate spatial scale. Achieving societal aspirations for coastal ecosystems requires that management approaches address the socio-economic aspects of issues and include stakeholder consultation, participation, and education
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