Major secretory antigens of the Helminth Fasciola hepatica activate a suppressive dendritic cell phenotype that attenuates Th17 cells but fails to activate Th2 immune responses

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Journal Article
Infection and Immunity, 2010, 78 (2), pp. 793 - 801
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Fasciola hepatica is a helminth pathogen that drives Th2/Treg immune responses in its mammalian host. The parasite releases a large number of molecules that are critical to inducing this type of immune response. Here we have selected recombinant forms of two major F. hepatica secreted molecules, the protease cathepsin L (rFhCL1) and an antioxidant, sigma class glutathione transferase (rFhGST-si), to examine their interactions with dendritic cells (DCs). Despite enzymatic and functional differences between these molecules, both induced interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-12p40, and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) secretion from DCs and enhanced CD40 expression. While this induction was mediated by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), the subsequent intracellular signaling pathways differed; rFhCL1 signaled through p38, and rFhGST-si mediated its effect via c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, p-NF-κBp65, and IRF5. Neither rFhCL1 nor rFhGST-si enhanced DC phagocytosis or induced Th2 immune responses in vivo. However, DCs matured in the presence of either enzyme attenuated IL-17 production from OVA peptide-specific T cells in vivo. In addition, DCs exposed to either antigen secreted reduced levels of IL-23. Therefore, both F. hepatica FhCL1 and FhGST-si modulate host immunity by suppressing responses associated with chronic inflammation-an immune modulatory mechanism that may benefit the parasite's survival within the host. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
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