Actual evapotranspiration estimation by ground and remote sensing methods: the Australian experience

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Journal Article
Hydrological Processes, 2011, 25 (26), pp. 4103 - 4116
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On average, Australia is a dry continent with many competing uses for water. Hence, there is an urgent need to know actual evapotranspiration (ET a) patterns across wide areas of agricultural and natural ecosystems, as opposed to just point measurements of ET a. The Australian Government has tasked the science agencies with operationally developing monthly and annual estimates of ET a and other hydrological variables, and with forecasting water availability over periods of days to decades, as part of its national water assessment programme. To meet these needs, Australian researchers have become leaders in developing large-area methods for estimating ET a at regional and continental scales. Ground methods include meteorological models, eddy covariance towers, sap flow sensors and catchment water balance models. Remote sensing methods use thermal infrared, mid infrared and/or vegetation indices usually combined with meteorological data to estimate ET a. Ground and remote sensing ET a estimates are assimilated into the Australian Water Resource Assessment, which issues annual estimates of the state of the continental water balance for policy and planning purposes. The best ET a models are estimated to have an error or uncertainty of 10% to 20% in Australia. Developments in Australian ET a research over the past 20years are reviewed, and sources of error and uncertainty in current methods and models are discussed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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