中国当代农村贫困大学毕业生就业难的前因后果 - 以广东地区为例 = The causes and consequences of difficulties for the college graduates of the rural poor to obtain employment in contemporary China : the case of Guangdong province
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本文主要运用第一手资料研究中国当代农村贫困大学毕业生就业难的原因以及其后果，填补了对于这一课题研究的不足之处。本研究表明，中国当代农村贫困大学毕业生就业难根源于不合理的教育体制度和社会制度。由于资源分配的不合理，农村学生无法享受城市的优质教育资源，导致了城乡学生之间在教育上的差异。这也间接地造成了农村贫困大学生就业难。中国目前的社会体制是造成农村大学毕业生就业难的主要原因。森严的社会等级制度仍旧根深蒂固地为少数的既得利益者提供方便；而为数甚多的贫困家庭的“农二代”还在为户口制度以及由户口制度所造成的二元社会遗留下的问题付出代价。社会腐败所造成的就业机会不均等和市场化的不充分更令农村大学毕业生的就业难上加难。这些问题不仅给社会治安带来一定的困扰，更多的会造成农村学生“读书无用论”的思潮重新回归，导致国民素质的整体下滑。因此，解决当代中国农村贫困大学生的就业问题已经成了刻不容缓的事情。 Mainly using primary material, this thesis is an investigation on the causes and consequences of difficulties encountered by university graduates of the rural poor in obtaining employment in contemporary China. It fills the knowledge gap of understanding one aspect of Chinese society with a focus on university students from underdeveloped rural China. The thesis demonstrates that the lack of opportunities for the university graduates of the rural poor to find jobs in contemporary China lies in both the higher education system and the social system. The unequal allocation and distribution of resources by the state have led to lower quality of primary and secondary education for rural students, who are put into a disadvantaged position in the employment market in competition with urban students. Rigid social hierarchy serves the entrenched vested interests of the rich and powerful. The “second generation” of peasant families in poor rural China are still paying the price of the “dual society” resulted from the hukou system. The endemic corruption and the underdeveloped market economy make it even harder for the university graduates of the rural poor to find a suitable job. The increasingly serious problem of unemployment for the university graduates of the rural poor not only threats social stability but also results in the resurgence of the old thoughts that “education is useless” among rural residents. In order to break this vicious circle, it has become an urgent matter to solve the unemployment problems of the college students who come from families of the rural poor.
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