Frequency analysis of eyes open and eyes closed EEG signals using the Hilbert-Huang transform

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Conference Proceeding
Proceedings of the 34th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2012, pp. 2865 - 2868
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Frequency analysis based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is examined as an alternative to Fourier spectral analysis in the study of EEG signals. This method overcomes the need for the EEG signal to be linear and stationary, assumptions necessary for the application of Fourier spectral analysis. The HHT method comprises two components: empirical mode decomposition (EMD) of the signal into intrinsic mode functions (IMFâs); and the Hilbert transform of the IMFâs. This technique is applied here in the study of consecutive eyes open (EO), eyes closed (EC) EEG signals of able bodied and spinal cord injured participants. The study found that in this EO, EC pair the instantaneous frequencies in the EO state were higher compared to the EC state. The Hilbert weighted frequency, a measure of the mean of the instantaneous frequencies present in an IMF, is used here to detect these changes from EO to the EC state in an EEG signal. Although there was a good detection of this change with information obtained from just one IMF (94% in able-bodied persons and 84% in SCI persons), almost 100% success in detecting between group differences was achieved using all the IMF's. This result has implications for assistive technology that rely on EEG changes in EO and EC states.
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