Pharmacological characterization of α-elapitoxin-Al2a from the venom of the Australian pygmy copperhead (Austrelaps labialis): An atypical long-chain α-neurotoxin with only weak affinity for α7 nicotinic receptors
- Publication Type:
- Journal Article
- Biochemical Pharmacology, 2012, 84 (6), pp. 851 - 863
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Despite the in vivo lethality of venom, neurotoxicity has not previously been considered a significant complication of envenoming by the Australian pygmy copperhead (Austrelaps labialis). However, recent evidence has emerged demonstrating that this venom contains potent presynaptic and postsynaptic neurotoxicity. The present study describes the isolation and pharmacological characterization of the first postsynaptic neurotoxin, α-EPTX-Al2a, from the venom of A. labialis. α-EPTX-Al2a (8072.77 Da) caused a concentration-dependent block of twitch contractions and a complete block of responses to cholinergic agonists in the chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation. This action is consistent with postjunctional neurotoxicity. Monovalent tiger snake antivenom prevented the onset of neurotoxicity if applied prior to toxin administration, but was only able to partially reverse neurotoxicity once muscle paralysis had developed. α-EPTX-Al2a produced a potent pseudo-irreversible antagonism of chick muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), with an estimated pA 2 value of 7.902 (K B = 12.5 nM). Interestingly, the toxin only produced a modest block of neuronal α7 nAChRs, with an IC 50 of 1.2 μM, and failed to inhibit ganglionic α3β2/α3β4 nAChRs in a fluorescence-based FLIPR assay using SH-SY5Y cells. α-EPTX-Al2a contained 75 amino acid residues with five disulfide bonds that had significant homology to classical long-chain α-neurotoxins. While α-EPTX-Al2a retains most pharmacophore residues critical for binding to muscle-type (α1) 2 βγδ nAChRs it lacks the key Ala 28 and Arg 36 residues important for α7 nAChR affinity. Given that A. labialis venom contains both irreversible presynaptic and postsynaptic neurotoxins, clinicians need to be aware of potential neurotoxic complications associated with pygmy copperhead envenomation. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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