Fetal Programming of Renal Development-Influence of Maternal Smoking
- OMICS Group International
- Publication Type:
- Journal Article
- Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism, 2013, S9 pp. 1 - 7
- Issue Date:
Smoking is a known risk factor for non-communicable illness including pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, and Type 2 diabetes. Smoking also contributes significantly to the rising `epidemic of chronic kidney disease. It is increasingly recognised that maternal programming of fetal development during pregnancy predisposes offspring to future disease. Maternal smoking, particularly in the first trimester, imposes a significant adverse impact on fetal renal development that determines the future risk of chronic kidney disease. Several mechanisms may contribute. Firstly, epigenetic modification of fetal nuclear or mitochondrial DNA, induced by intrauterine exposure to chemicals within the cigarette smoke, may result in an increased risk for metabolic and renal disorders. Secondly, nicotine and other chemicals within the cigarette smoke can cross the blood placental barrier concentrate in the fetus and result in direct toxicity. Thirdly, malnutrition due to the anorexigenic effect of smoking results in nutritional deficits in the fetus and impairs organ growth and development. 10-45% of pregnant women from diverse populations smoke during pregnancy. Hence it is considered a major and significant public health issue that imposes adverse health consequences not only to the pregnant women, but also inherited by their offspring, and potentially affecting future generations.
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