Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR): Structure, signaling pathways and biological effects
- Nova Science Publishers
- Publication Type:
- Advances in Medicine and Biology Volume 68, 2013, 1, pp. 145 - 158
- Issue Date:
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a highly conserved member of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) related kinase protien family and functions as a cellular sensor of changes in ambient glucose and amino acid levels; critical for cellular proliferation and differentiation. There are two multiprotein complexes of mTOR signalling components, as mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2. Only mTORC1 appears to be nutrient dependent. In response to low intracellular energy availability, mTORC1 stabilizes and reduces the activity of mTOR. On the other hand, conditions of nutrient abundance promote its activity. However, such mechanisms have only been reported in either cell line models or lean animals; and hence their application to human states is yet to be determined.
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