Comparative effects of single-mode vs. duration-matched concurrent exercise training on body composition, low-grade inflammation, and glucose regulation in sedentary, overweight, middle-aged men

Publication Type:
Journal Article
Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, 2013, 38 (7), pp. 779 - 788
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The effect of duration-matched concurrent exercise training (CET) (50% resistance (RET) and 50% endurance (EET) training) on physiological training outcomes in untrained middle-aged men remains to be elucidated. Forty-seven men (age, 48.1 ± 6.8 years; body mass index, 30.4 ± 4.1 kg·m-2) were randomized into 12-weeks of EET (40-60 min of cycling), RET (10 exercises; 3-4 sets × 8-10 repetitions), CET (50% serial completion of RET and EET), or control condition. The following were determined: intervention-based changes in fitness and strength; abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT), total body fat (TB-FM) and fat-free (TB-FFM) mass; plasma cytokines (C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) interleukin-6 (IL-6)); muscle protein content of p110α and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4); mRNA expression of GLUT4, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α-β, cytochrome c oxidase, hexokinase II, citrate synthase; oral glucose tolerance; and estimated insulin sensitivity. CET promoted commensurate improvements of aerobic capacity and muscular strength and reduced VAT and TB-FM equivalently to EET and RET (p < 0.05), yet only RET increased TB-FFM (p < 0.05). Although TNFα and IL-6 were reduced after all training interventions (p < 0.05), CRP remained unchanged (p > 0.05). EET reduced area under the curve for glucose, insulin, and C-peptide, whilst CET and RET respectively reduced insulin and C-peptide, and C-peptide only (p < 0.05). Notwithstanding increased insulin sensitivity index after all training interventions (p < 0.05), no change presented for GLUT4 or p110α total protein, or chronic mRNA expression of the studied mitochondrial genes (p > 0.05). In middle-aged men, 12 weeks of durationmatched CET promoted commensurate changes in fitness and strength, abdominal VAT, plasma cytokines and insulin sensitivity, and an equidistant glucose tolerance response to EET and RET; despite no change of measured muscle mechanisms associative to insulin action, glucose transport, and mitochondrial function.
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