Hydrogenation of graphene and hydrogen diffusion behavior on graphene/graphane interface

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Graphene Simulation, 2011, pp. 53 - 74
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Hydrogenation of carbon materials has been attracting a wide range of interests as an application of hydrogen storage materials in hydrogen-powered automobile as well as a methodology to manipulate the electric properties of carbon materials. Graphene with unique electronic, thermal and mechanical properties has been investigated as one of the most promising candidates for the next generation of electronic materials (Geim, 2009). However, several major challenges have to be tackled before the widespread application of graphene. For example, the absence of a band gap in the electronic spectrum of intrinsic graphene and the Klein paradox as a consequence of the Dirac-type nature of the charge carriers (Novoselov et al., 2004; Rao et al., 2009). The most efficient way to overcome these problems is hydrogenation of graphene (Luo et al., 2009). The graphane (Sofo et al., 2007), a fully hydrogenated single layer of graphene, was suggested to possess the promising semiconductor properties with a band gap of around 3.5 eV theoretically. Very recently, Elias et al. (Elias et al, 2009) experimentally demonstrated the formation of graphane through the exposure of a graphene membrane to hydrogen plasma. Subsequently, the rate of hydrogenation process of multilayer graphene was found to strongly depend on the number of layers (Luo et al., 2009; Ryu et al., 2008). These discoveries open important perspectives for the application of graphene-based devices because the electronic gap in those graphanes could be controlled by the degree of hydrogenation (Elias et al., 2009; Zhou et al., 2009).
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