互联网的中国结:公民记者和博客对中国政治民主化的影响 = The Internet and China : the impacts of the netizen reporters and bloggers on democratisation in China

Publication Type:
Thesis
Issue Date:
2009
Full metadata record
Files in This Item:
Filename Description Size
Thumbnail01Front.pdf4.75 MB
Adobe PDF
02Whole.pdf79.62 MB
Adobe PDF
互联网虽然出现只有十几年,却已经成为我们生活中最重要的东西之一。由于互联网是没有控制中心的媒体,它的诞生曾经给信仰自由民主的人们带来一片欢呼,以为真正的民主的时代到来了。但是,互联网对于专制政治的堡垒远非攻无不克。中共政权在与互联网的对垒中频频得手,就是一个典型例子。那么,互联网进入中国也已经有十几年了,它对中国的政治有怎样的影响?特别是它在推进中国的政治民主化方面到底有哪些贡献? 本文根据能够掌握的资讯以及亲身体验,以案例研究为主要方法,深入探讨中国专制政府与互联网之间的博弈。本文力图客观地展现中国互联网发展的真实图景。这个图景由几乎势均力敌的两个方面组成。一方面是中国党国政府当局在有效地控制平面纸质媒体的同时,也将魔掌伸向互联网,使中国互联网受到商业逻辑和权力逻辑的双重宰制。而且,他们操控互联网的技术与手段越来越周密精致,比起对纸质媒体的操控有过之而无不及。但是,在另一方面,随着互联网技术日新月异,中国网民这个新的社会群体日益壯大和成熟。由于在利益和价值理念上和党国当局的差别与冲突,中国网民中的相当部分与党国当局疏离日深,而且通过互联网相互呼应此起彼伏,使得治国理念陈旧过时的党国当局对网民的操控陷入捉襟见肘、黔驴技穷的态势。中国专制政府与互联网两者在相互博弈中不断地改变着对方,中国互联网被改造成被阉割和绑架的互联网,中国专制政府也因回应互联网的挑战而被改造成相对增加了透明度和弹性的政府。 本文更突出的贡献是利用第一手材料对中国公民记者和博客这两个在互联网最新出现的现象和最新崛起的力量进行系统的实证研究。研究结果显示,当中共党国当局以记者证为手段严格管制所有记者、将新闻信息的采集和发布严格纳入党国的宣传口径,一些无证、无薪而又冒着政治风险的“公民记者”则活跃于中国的各个角落,通过互联网即时发布不经党国当局审批的“敏感”信息,在党国宣传系统之外开辟了另一个新闻信息渠道。当中共党国当局对互联网的网络新闻、论坛、BBS 等板块都实行了相当严密的管制,具有自主性、灵活性、宽松性等优势的个人博客犹如雨后春笋遍布各大网站,不但承担发布新闻(特别是维权新闻)的功能,而且以时评、随笔、杂感、论文等文体承担政治讨论、观念传播思想沟通和理论探索的功能。 本文所揭示的另一个现象是,在民主国家中“网络社会”与现实社会同构,在专制国家中“网络社会”与现实社会差异甚大。中共党国政府在竭力延缓现实社会中的政治民主化,但“网络社会”中的民主化已先行一步。互联网已成为中国公民社会和公共领域的前沿阵地。从本文的研究可以看到,每一次互联网技术的发展,都改变着中国人的生活方式和交往方式,都给中国公民带来更大的发言权,都带来信息民主化的结果。中国核心网民是一批彻底摆脱了臣民心态的现代成熟公民,具有成熟的现代权利意识和民主理念。他们怀着強烈的使命感在网上进行公共沟通、以言论方式参与社会政治事件,並在这种沟通的参与中成熟起来。一些民主机制已经先在中国“网络社会”中形成,诸如平等参与、信息公开、资源共享、自由结社、民主协商、投票海选等等。不可置疑的是,“网络社会”的发展,也为现实社会提供了新的互动环境与空间,并充当现实社会变革的先导。在“网络社会”发展起来的自主意识、自由意识、权利意识、平等意识,不断冲击着现实社会的等级专制体制。“网络社会”的发展,拓宽着中国公民的信息渠道与言论空间,迅速有效地传播着自由民主思想,以公民权利意识的广泛提高为基础的维权运动正在中国社会波谰壯阔地展开,甚至人权、法治、宪政等自由民主理念都冠冕堂皇地逼进了中国官方话语系统。 本文的总体结论是,互联网迄今未能颠覆中国党国专制政府,但它成功地护持着中国政治民主化的一线生机,不断地积累中国政治民主化的思想、知识、组织和人力资源,对中国政治民主化的作用潜能均下可估量。 Relied primarily on the first hand materials and based mainly on the methodologies of case studies and participatory observation, this thesis is an in-depth analysis of interactions between the Internet and the Chinese communist regime. It demonstrates the real picture of the ongoing information warfare between the Internet and the Chinese communist government. On the one hand, the Chinese communist party-state has extended its skilful control over the printing media to the Internet with increasingly sophisticated mechanisms such as manipulating, blocking, filtering, policing and ensuring self-censorship through a combination of rewards and harsh punishments. On the other hand, the introduction of the new communication technology in China has engendered the growth of a new social stratum of netizens who have managed with some success to circumvent the obstacles created by the party-state and access multiple sources of information. Due to profound differences in beliefs and values, the party-state finds itself in constant conflicts with a great proportion of netizens. As a consequence the Internet and the Chinese government have transformed each other, making the former less open while making the latter more open and flexible. More remarkable contribution of the thesis lies in its timely assessment on the impacts of "citizen reporters" and bloggers. It illuminates that whereas the Chinese communist party-state resorts to licensing and other mechanisms to keep official journalists in line, thousands of "citizen reporters" volunteer to open an alternative source of news for the Internet; and that whereas the party-state has brought BBS (bulletin board system), web forums, and chat rooms under strict control, blogs has emerged as a new effective site for news, political debates and ideological exploration. This research shows that every step in the development of communication technology has helped to improve the power structure in favour of the people, empowering the Chinese netizens in the public sphere. Furthermore, in contrast with the political reality in China, democratic ideas and democratic practice have developed well in advance in the virtual networks or "virtual society", pounding at the despotic order. The overall conclusion drown from this research is that the Internet has played a key role in sustaining the endeavour of democratisation in China, contributed to the growth of democratic consciousness and networks, and demonstrated a great potential in facilitating China's transition to democracy.
Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: