Investigation into the design of ultra-wideband (UWB) and multi-band antennas
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The rapid development of high speed wireless communications as well as other applications such as microwave imaging place extraordinary demands on spectrums for which ultra-wideband (UWB) and multi-band, e.g.: dual-band, techniques are useful. These UWB and multi-band services require UWB and multi-band antenna designs. Motivated by these applications, we first carried out the investigations on the family of square plate monopole (SPM) antennas for UWB applications. The family of square plate monopole (SPM) UWB antennas yields quite attractive features, viz.: ease of fabrication and freedom of dielectric material selection. Next, we considered the use of coplanar waveguide (CPW) fed printed UWB antenna for compact, body-worn applications. We investigated the antenna performance using empirical optimisation. The work on CPW-fed printed antennas has led to the development of multi-band antennas also. For UWB antennas, we have first considered the modifications of well know square plate monopole (SPM) antennas. Our approach differs from other similar approaches on SPM antennas published in the literature. We have introduced symmetrical modifications to both bottom and top portions of the SPM antenna element. This has led to the development of these types of symmetrically modified SPM antennas, viz.: symmetrically beveled SPM (SB-SPM) antenna, symmetrical semi-circular base SPM (SSCB-SPM) antenna and symmetrically notched SPM (SN-SPM) antenna. All these antennas have been empirically optimised using Feko® and the theoretical and experimental results are provided, in the point of view of reflection coefficient, radiation characteristics, phase response of antenna transfer function and time domain response. For better suiting the compact and body-worn UWB applications, we have investigated the design of CPW-fed printed antenna. We have explored the antenna characteristics using empirical optimisation. The theoretical and experimental results for the completed CPW-fed printed antenna are provided, in the point of view of reflection coefficient, radiation characteristics, phase response of antenna transfer function, group delay and time domain response. Lately, for multi-band antennas, we have investigated the design of multi-band printed antennas, which are fed by CPW, to suit emerging design requirements. Two CPW-fed dual-band printed antennas for GSM and DCS/PCS as well as DCS/PCS and IEEE 802.11b applications are proposed, which have C-shape and T-shape structures respective1y. The theoretical and experimental results for these antennas are provided, in the point of view of reflection coefficient and radiation characteristics. Due to the use of substrate material for the designs of UWB CPW-fed printed antenna as well as C-shaped and T-shaped dual-band CPW-fed printed antennas, the effects of substrate material tolerances on UWB characteristics and dual-band characteristics are investigated. Furthermore, as these UWB and dual-band CPW-fed printed antennas are the promising candidates for wireless body-worn applications, which include wireless body area network (WBAN), the interactions between them and lossy material, such as human tissue, are investigated, which might help to decide the suitability of them for wireless body-worn applications.
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