Continuum modeling of electron beam induced processes

Oxford University Press
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Nanofabrication Using Focused Ion and Electron Beams: Principles and Applications, 2012, 1, pp. 286 - 320
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Gas-mediated focused electron beam induced etching (FEBIE) and deposition (FEBID), collectively referred to here as FEBIED, permit nanoscale modification of surface material via chemical reactions involving electron-dissociated precursor molecules. Electrons crossing the solid-vacuum interface usually possess a wide range of energies, are capable of breaking most bonds in typical precursor adsorbates and dissociation products, and can therefore generate a wide range of mobile, chemically active species. Adsorption, desorption, diffusion, and dissociation of these species all contribute to the development of nanostructures fabricated by FEBIED processes. Furthermore, these nanostructures are often electron-sensitive, and thus their structure evolves during deposition. The wide range of processes behind FEBIED yields very complex behavior that is yet to be modeled realistically fifty years after Christy first proposed a simple analytical model of deposition induced by a broad (defocused) electron beam [1]. A complete description of FEBIED requires a realistic model of electron-gas and electron-solid interactions, the spatial and energy distributions of secondary and backscattered electrons, electron interactions with adsorbates, and the behavior of adsorbates and dissociation products at the solid-vacuum interface.
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