Conversion of coral sand to calcium phosphate for biomedical applications

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Journal Article
Journal of the Australian Ceramic Society, 2007, 43 (1), pp. 44 - 48
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Coral sand grains were analyzed using simultaneous differential thermogravimetric analysis (DTA/TGA), Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). These techniques were performed to confirm the characteristics and properties as well as the composition of the coral sand grains. Imaging of the full surface topography were conducted in the ESEM. After characterization coral sand grains were treated for impurities and organic materials were subsequently removed. The materials were than converted to calcium phosphates utilizing hydrothermal treatment. The results have shown that the coral sand grains were composed of calcium carbonate with a network of uniform inner porous structure. The ESEM has provided valuable information through the imaging of the samples which in turn allowed a comparison of the pore sizes before and after the hydrothermal treatment. The current study shows that the coral sand to be a promising source of converted calcium carbonate to calcium phosphates for biomedical applications.
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