Calibration of a passive sampling device for time-integrated sampling of hydrophilic herbicides in aquatic environments.

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Journal Article
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2007, 26 (3), pp. 435 - 443
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two types of solid-phase materials, a styrenedivinylbenzene copolumer sorbent (embedded in a SDB-XC Empore disk) and a styrenedivinylbenzene copolymer sorbent modified with sulfonic acid functional groups (embeddedin a SCB-RPS Empore disk) were compared as a receiving phase in a passive sampling device for monitoring polar pesticied. The SDB-XC Empore disk was selected for further evaluation, pverlayed with either a polysulfone or a polyethersulfone diffusion membrane. The target herbicides included five nonionized herbicides (simazine, atrazine, diuron, clomazone and metolachlor) and four phenoxy acid herbicideds (diacamba, 92,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid [2,4-D], (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid [MCPA} and triclopyr) with log octanol/water partitian coefficient (log Kow) values of less than three in water. Uptake of these herbicides generally was higher into a device constructed of a SDB-XC Empore disk as a receiving phase covered with a polyethersulfone membrane compared to a similar device covered with a polysufone membrane.Using the device with a SDB-XC Empore disk covred with a polyethersulfone membrane,linear uptake of simazine, atrazine, diuron, clomazone and metoachlor was observed foruo tp 21 d, and daily sampling rates of the herbiccides from water in a laboratory flow-through system were setermined. Theuptake rate of each nonionized herbicide by the Empore disk-based passive sampler was linearly proportional to irs concentration in the water, and the sampling rate was independent of the water concentrations over the 21-d period. Uptake of the phenoxy acid herbicides (2,4-D, MCPA and triclopyr) obeyed first-order kinetics and rapidly reached equilibrium in the pasasive sampler after approximately 12d of exposure. The Empore disn-based passive sampler displayed isotropic kinetics, with a release half-life for triclopyr of approximately 6 d.
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