云南合院式民居研究 = A study on courtyard-style dwellings in Yunnan, China
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汉族和少数民族共同聚居的云南是颇具特色的社会文化区域。由于历史人口迁徙、历史行政区划以及地域环境等的影响，汉文化与各民族文化经过不同历史时期的整合与分化，逐渐形成云南的不同地域类型。云南合院式民居是汉文化与各民族文化交融的产物，是云南地方建筑研究中的重要问题之一。 论文通过对既有研究成果的总结和对云南社会与文化的整体把握，从地域、历史、民族的角度将中原文化对云南的影响范围进行分析，并对不同地域的民居建筑模式特别是合院式民居及衍化予以比较研究和深入探讨。基于云南是一个多种文化交织的地带，建筑的发展演变受到各种复杂因素的影响，综合运用历史学、文化人类学、文化地理学、类型学等人文社会科学与建筑学相结合的研究方法，建立探讨云南传统民居建筑的研究模式。论文的最主要贡献在于系统地理清了云南合院式民居的建筑类型分布与多民族文化传播交融的关系。 根据对各种合院式民居型制特征与体系的研究，论文以建筑类型学的方法，深入剖析了云南合院式民居的＂基型＂及其衍化类型，提出了云南合院式民居的两大基本类型（坊坊相接型、紧凑生长型）及其衍化变异体，将通俗表达的＂一顆印＂、＂三坊一照壁＂、＂四合五天井＂的合院式民居纳入一个完整的类型体系，重新建构它的源流和谱系关系，详尽探讨了它的各种模式和地域的衍化变异的类型。重点分析了民族分布与合院式民居的关系，汉族移民与合院式民居的关系，城镇合院与乡村合院的不同和演变，进一步论述了民族文化和建筑的互动关系，以及它们所表达的社会文化意义，并对云南合院式民居的特殊价值及对聚落形态、公共建筑形制等的影响作用进行探讨。 基于云南合院式民居文化内涵丰富、类型多样，论文借助文化人类学、文化地理学等人文社会科学概念，将文献总结和田野调查中的云南合院式民居根据类型进行建筑文化区域及影响区域（分区）的划分，形成两个文化核心区和四个文化影响区（亚区）。这样既能对云南合院式民居丰富类型的分布进行把握，又可清晰地找到合院式民居与其他形式的民居的界线，这就为氐羌、百濮、百越三大文化圈具体界线的确定，为云南地域文化的亚层次（亚区）区划的确定从建筑角度提出重要依据。 在对中国传统城镇形态研究的基础上，用符合云南地域特点的分类方式，以聚落形态结构特征为重点，归纳出云南合院式民居聚落的两大类型：城垣型和自然型。并将云南合院式民居分布地区的典型聚落的特点进行汇总，总结出其形态结构规律。 最后，论文针对目前云南合院式民居及聚落的规划、保护、利用工作规范性、系统性不強、重点不突出的问题，提出保护利用策略的原则、措施，并以典型实例作为示范。 云南是一个多种文化交融的典型地区，云南合院式民居是文化多样性的载体之一，从文化多样性、文化变迁的角度认识，具有较高的价值，对于它的深入研究具有典型意义，可以为进一步的保护规划研究提供详细的基础资料，为地方风格、地方特色的建筑设计创作提供参考和借鉴，为地方建筑文化的保持、发扬、利用打下理论基础。 Yunnan Province, where Han people live together with many other minorities, is a social and cultural region with unique characteristics. Influenced by the migration of the population, the change of administrative regions and geographic environment etc in a long history, various regional types comes into being in Yunnan after a long-term integration and differentiation between Han culture and other ethnic cultures. As a result that Han Culture blended various cultures of other minorities, the civilian dwelling houses with courtyards become one of the most important problems in the researches about the local architecture of Yunnan Province. By deeply summarizing the previous research conclusions and fully understanding the society and culture of Yunnan Province, the paper analyzed the impact that Zhongyuan Culture puts on Yunnan from the aspects of regional, historic and ethnic characteristics, and profoundly discussed the architectural modes of civilian dwelling houses in various regions, especially courtyard houses and their evolution. Because Yunnan Province is a place where many kinds of cultures are blended, the architectural development and evolution are influenced by various comprehensive factors. So the paper made use of the research methods that humanities and social science such as History, Cultural Anthropology, Cultural Geography and Typology etc connected with Architecture to establish the research mode about the traditional dwelling houses in Yunnan Province. It is the most important innovation that the paper systematically summed up the types and the distribution of the civilian dwelling houses with courtyards in Yunnan and analyzed their relation with the spread and amalgamation of many ethnic cultures. According to the research on the characteristics and the systems of various dwelling houses with courtyards, by using the research method of Architectural Typology, the paper profoundly analyzed the “prototypes'’ and their evolutional types of Yunnan’s dwelling houses with courtyards, and put forward the two basic types of Yunnan’s dwelling houses with courtyards and their evolutional types, and put various types of dwelling houses with courtyards such as “One Seal”, “Three Lane and One Wall" and “Four Courtyard and Five Patio” in a popular term into a entire typological system, and rebuilt the relationship between the derivation and the pedigree, and elaborately discussed different patterns and geographical variations of derivation and evolution. The paper focused on the analyses of the relationships between ethnic distribution and dwelling houses with courtyards and the relationships between migration of Han people and dwelling houses with courtyards, and pointed out the differences between houses with courtyards in towns and in rural areas and their evolution, and further dissertated the interactive relation between ethnic culture and architecture and their social and cultural significance, and lastly discussed the special value of Yunnan's dwelling houses with courtyards, their influences on settlement forms and public architectural system, etc. Based on rich connotation and various types of Yunnan’s dwelling houses with courtyards, making use of the conceptions from Cultural Anthropology and Cultural Geography etc, the dissertation compartmentalized the Yunnan’s dwelling houses with courtyards from documentary summarization and field investigation into architectural cultural areas and influenced areas (zones), including 2 cultural core areas and 4 cultural influenced areas (sub-zones). Thus we cannot only grasp the distribution of abundant dwelling houses with courtyards in Yunnan, but also identify the boundary between dwelling houses with courtyards and other dwelling houses. So it provided an important foundation from architectural aspect to define the boundaries of the three cultural circles such as Diqiang cultural circle, Baipu cultural circle and Baiyue cultural circle as well as to define the division of sub-level (sub-zone) of Yunnan regional cultural. Based on the research on the forms of Chinese traditional towns, making use of the assorting ways fitting for the geographic characteristics of Yunnan Province, focusing on the characteristics of the settlements’ forms and structure, the dissertation drew a conclusion that the dwelling houses with courtyards in Yunnan can be grouped into two types (i.e. the type with city walls and the type conforming to the nature) and put the typical dwelling houses with courtyards in Yunnan together to summarize their structure rule. In the end, the dissertation put forward some policies, principles and measures to protect and reasonably exploit the dwelling houses with courtyards in Yunnan and took an example as a case according to the problems that the planning, the protection and the exploitation of the dwelling houses with courtyards in Yunnan are weak in regulations, system and emphases. Yunnan Province is a typical region where many different cultures are blended, and the dwelling houses with courtyards in Yunnan are one of the carriers of multi-cultures. Analysed from the perspective of multi-culture character and culture change, it has a typical significance to profoundly study it, which can give the basic materials to further research on the protective plan, and can provide the reference for the architectural design with the local characteristics, and can make a foundation for the preservation, the development and the exploitation of local architectural cultures.
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