Toxicity of Atrazine and Molinate to the Cladoceran Daphnia carinata and the Effect of River Water and Bottom Sediment on Their Bioavailability
- Publication Type:
- Journal Article
- Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2004, 46 (3), pp. 308 - 315
- Issue Date:
Atrazine and molinate are widely used herbicides and concern has been raised about their potential deleterious impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Although there have been some studies on the toxicity of herbicides to aquatic organisms using laboratory or natural water, information on the effect of sediments, suspended particulates, and dissolved organic matter on their bioavailability is quite limited. This study aims to provide toxicity data that considers these factors and the effect that these factors have on bioavailability. In this study, the toxicity of the test chemicals was calculated following the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) methods, whereas change in bioavailability was measured using EC 50 values based on measured initial concentrations of the test chemicals. The acute (48-h) static toxicity of atrazine and molinate to the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia carinata was determined in cladoceran water and river water in the absence and presence of sediment. The 48-h EC50 (immobilization) values of atrazine to D. carinata ranged from 22.4 to 26.7 mg/L, while the corresponding values for molinate ranged from 18.3 to 33.6 mg/L, respectively. Both chemicals were classed as having low acute toxicity to D. carinata. The presence of dissolved organic matter and suspended particles in river water did not significantly (p > 0.05) reduce the bioavailability (measured as toxicity) of atrazine to D. carinata compared to that tested in cladoceran water. The presence of sediment, however, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the bioavailability (48-h EC50) of atrazine in cladoceran water, from 24.6 to 30.7 mg/L, and in river water, from 22.4 to 31.0 mg/L. Similarly, the presence of sediment in cladoceran water, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the bioavailability (48-h EC50) of molinate, from 26.6 to 46.4 mg/L, and in river water, from 22.5 to 45.6 mg/L.
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