Tissue degradation and enzymatic activity observed during protoplast isolation in two ornamental Grevillea species

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Journal Article
In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Plant, 2004, 40 (1), pp. 119 - 125
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Degradative changes in tissue during protoplast isolation were a contributing factor to low protoplast yields in the salt-sensitive Grevillea arenaria (R. Brown) and the salt-tolerant Grevillea ilicifolia (R. Brown). Protein and malondialdehyde content decreased significantly during the protoplast isolation procedure. Acid and neutral proteases were identified, and high acid protease activities were correlated to low protoplast yields. Acid phosphatase, catalase, polyphenol oxidase and lipoxygenase activities increased in both Grevillea species with cell wall digestion. High activities of catalase and low levels of polyphenol oxidase were correlated with high protoplast yields. Levels of acid phosphatase and lipoxygenase were not good indicators of final protoplast yields. The addition of the anti-oxidant, reduced glutathione, and the acid protease inhibitor, pepstatin A, significantly increased protoplast yields. Strategies were identified to minimize deleterious degradative effects during the isolation of protoplasts, including strict pH control, testing a number of cell wall digestion enzymes, and the addition of anti-oxidative metabolites and protease inhibitors.
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