中国古代私有财产权的法律文化研究 = Research on the legal culture of private property in pre-modern China
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私有财产权是由法律创设的以人与人之间的关系为本质的私人对财产拥有的全部权利。法律文化是由法律制度、法律意识、以及与法律相关的行为模式构成的复合体。本论文研究中国自先秦以来主流的法律文化思想，力图揭示中国自古以来无法建立一个完善的保护私有财产的法律制度的法律文化原因。研究发现，在以家庭占有为特征的小农经济和小商品经济模式下，在＂国＂＂家＂一体的政治结构、天人一体的自然观以及＂化性起伪＂的人性观基础上产生的中国古代私有财产权，既不具有绝对性、永久性和排他性的＂实体权利＂，也不具有＂自由＂、＂平等＂之类的＂意识权利＂，更毋宁说有什么＂私有财产神圣＂的宪法制度。也就是说中国古代私有财产的＂意识权利＂缺失，＂实体权利＂是相对的、不完整的。专制王朝对土地等主要财产具有终极所有权，行政权力决定中国古代财产的分配，契约只有在民间层次上才能有限地对抗他人。中国古代缺乏私有财产保护的完整法律体系，多用刑法手段和家族习惯法来调整实际存在的私有财产关系。＂大公灭私＂的公私理念、＂重义轻利＂的义利观和平均主义思想等法律意识伴随着中国古代私有财产权的产生和发展而趋于成熟后，又长期沉淀于中华民族的灵魂深处，严重制约着中国私有财产权的发展，甚至至今仍与现代法律制度的建立和完善发生着直接碰撞。 Private property is all the property rights owned by individuals and endowed by law. Is essence is the relationship between people. Legal culture is the combination of legal system, legal consciousness and the patterns of behavior in relation to law. This thesis looks at the mainstream legal culture and thoughts since the pre-Qin era in an attempt to explore the cultural reasons behind the absence of a legal system to protect private properties in Chinese history. The thesis argues that neither absolute, eternal, exclusive "substantive rights" of private property nor "conscious rights" such as "freedom" and "equity" existed in Chinese legal culture. In pre-modem China, the absence of private property rights can be attributed to the small-scale peasant and small commodity economy featuring family ownership, a political structure emphasizing the unification of states and family, a dominant philosophy viewing the nature as the unity between heaven and human, and an overwhelming emphasis on the importance of socialization. As a result, there has never existed a constitutional framework upholding ''the sanctity of private property" in Chinese history. The absence of "conscious rights" in private property reduced "substantive rights'' to relative and incomplete rights. Autocratic monarchy was the ultimate owner of major types of properties, such as land. The distribution of properties was determined by administrative power. Contracts were only effective In the non-government sector. Pre-modern China lacked the legal system to protect private properties. The private property relations were handled in criminal codes and family custom law. Ideas such as "eliminating the private for the great public", "duty above profit" and egalitarianism were deep-rooted in Chinese culture. These ideas have impeded the development of private property rights, and even obstruct the establishment and improvement of a modem legal system in today's China.
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