CSTX-1, a toxin from the venom of the hunting spider Cupiennius salei, is a selective blocker of L-type calcium channels in mammalian neurons
- Publication Type:
- Journal Article
- Neuropharmacology, 2007, 52 (8), pp. 1650 - 1662
- Issue Date:
The inhibitor cystine-knot motif identified in the structure of CSTX-1 from Cupiennius salei venom suggests that this toxin may act as a blocker of ion channels. Whole-cell patch-clamp experiments performed on cockroach neurons revealed that CSTX-1 produced a slow voltage-independent block of both mid/low- (M-LVA) and high-voltage-activated (HVA) insect Cav channels. Since C. salei venom affects both insect as well as rodent species, we investigated whether Cav channel currents of rat neurons are also inhibited by CSTX-1. CSTX-1 blocked rat neuronal L-type, but no other types of HVA Cav channels, and failed to modulate LVA Cav channel currents. Using neuroendocrine GH3 and GH4 cells, CSTX-1 produced a rapid voltage-independent block of L-type Cav channel currents. The concentration-response curve was biphasic in GH4 neurons and the subnanomolar IC50 values were at least 1000-fold lower than in GH3 cells. L-type Cav channel currents of skeletal muscle myoballs and other voltage-gated ion currents of rat neurons, such as INa(v) or IK(v) were not affected by CSTX-1. The high potency and selectivity of CSTX-1 for a subset of L-type channels in mammalian neurons may enable the toxin to be used as a molecular tool for the investigation of this family of Cav channels. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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