Biosynthetic incorporation of oxidized amino acids into proteins and their cellular proteolysis

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Journal Article
Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 2002, 32 (8), pp. 766 - 775
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We demonstrate that oxidized amino acids can be incorporated into proteins by protein synthesis. The level of incorporation into protein was dependent on the concentration of oxidized amino acid supplied to the cells. At low levels of incorporation, the oxidized amino acids examined increased the degradation rate of the cell proteins. Degradation of certain proteins containing high levels of DOPA (but not ortho or meta tyrosine) was decreased to below the basal degradation rates suggesting that DOPA may contribute to proteins becoming resistant to proteolysis. Changes in the degradation rates of the oxidized amino acid-containing proteins was shown to have no impact on the degradation rates of native proteins, indicating that the activity of the degradative machinery was not affected. We demonstrate that oxidized proteins are selectively degraded by the proteasomes and provide evidence to suggest that the proteasomes and the endosomal-lysosomal systems may act in sequence as well as in parallel. The incorporation approach, unlike cell studies in which an exogenous oxidant is used, allows the degradation rates of the oxidatively modified proteins to be selectively measured, offering a greater sensitivity as well as greatly reducing toxicity to the cell and avoiding oxidative modification of other cell components. © 2002 Elsevier Science Inc.
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