The toxicity and bioavailability of atrazine and molinate to Chironomus tepperi larvae in laboratory and river water in the presence and absence of sediment
- Publication Type:
- Journal Article
- Chemosphere, 2005, 58 (9), pp. 1231 - 1239
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Acute (10 day) semi-static toxicity tests in which the midge, Chironomus tepperi, were exposed to atrazine and molinate were conducted in laboratory water and in river water, in the absence and presence of sediment. The bioavailability measured as median lethal concentrations (LC50) and 95% fiducial limits (FLs) of atrazine to C. tepperi in laboratory water in the absence and presence of sediment were 16.6 (14.3-19.4) and 21.0 (18.2-24.1) mg l-1, respectively while the corresponding values in river water were 16.7 (14.7-19.0) and 22.7 (20.3-25.4) mg l-1, respectively. For molinate, the LC50 and FL values in laboratory water in the absence and presence of sediment were 8.8 (6.8-11.4) and 14.3 (12.4-16.4) mg l -1, respectively and the corresponding values in river water were 9.3 (7.6-11.3) and 14.5 (12.4-16.9) mg l-1, respectively. Atrazine has low toxicity (LC50 > 10 mg l-1) while molinate has moderate toxicity (1 mg l-1 < LC50 < 10 mg l -1) to C. tepperi. River water did not significantly (P > 0.05) reduce the bioavailability of either chemical to C. tepperi. However, the presence of sediment did significantly (P < 0.05) reduce the bioavailability of both atrazine and molinate to C. tepperi. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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