The combined SPE:ToxY-PAM phytotoxicity assay; application and appraisal of a novel biomonitoring tool for the aquatic environment

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Journal Article
Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 2005, 20 (7), pp. 1443 - 1451
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Mounting concerns regarding the environmental impact of herbicides has meant a growing requirement for accurate, timely information regarding herbicide residue contamination of, in particular, aquatic systems. Conventional methods of detection remain limited in terms of practicality due to high costs of operation and the specialised information that analysis provides. A new phytotoxicity bioassay was trialled for the detection of herbicide residues in filter-purified (Milli-Q) as well as natural waters. The performance of the system, which combines solid-phase extraction (SPE) with the ToxY-PAM dual-channel yield analyser (Heinz Walz GmbH), was tested alongside the traditional method of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The assay methodology was found to be highly sensitive (LOD 0.1 ng L -1 diuron) with good reproducibility. The study showed that the assay protocol is time effective and can be employed for the aquatic screening of herbicide residues in purified as well as natural waters. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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