Evaluation of the protective effects of reactive sulfide on the acute toxicity of silver to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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Journal Article
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2004, 23 (5), pp. 1204 - 1210
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Acute 96-h toxicity tests were performed with juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to AgNO3 in either the absence or the presence of 100 nM reactive sulfide to evaluate the protective effect of aqueous sulfides against ionic Ag toxicity. The sulfide was presented in the form of zinc sulfide (ZnS) clusters under oxic conditions. Silver was lost from the water column during the course of the experiment, so mean measured Ag concentrations were used to generate all median lethal concentration (LC50) data. The system was complicated in that Ag2S precipitated because of the need for large amounts of Ag to obtain lethal effects in the presence of ZnS. Some of the losses of Ag could be explained by complexation with ZnS and formation of solid Ag2S. Other losses were probably the result of partial adsorption to exposure-chamber walls or to complexation with ligands or functional groups within organic material produced by the fish.
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