Immunological interactions between 2common pathogens, the Th1-inducing protozoan Toxoplasma gondii and the Th2-inducing helminth Fasciola hepatica

Publisher:
Public Library of Science
Publication Type:
Journal Article
Citation:
PLoS ONE, 2009, 4 (5), pp. 1 - 10
Issue Date:
2009-01
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The nature of the immune response to infection is dependent on the type of infecting organism. Intracellular organisms such as Toxoplasma gondii stimulate a Th1-driven response associated with production of IL-12, IFN-?, nitric oxide and IgG2a antibodies and classical activation of macrophages. In contrast, extracellular helminths such as Fasciola hepatica induce Th2 responses characterised by the production of IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IgG1 antibodies and alternative activation of macrophages. As co-infections with these types of parasites commonly exist in the field it is relevant to examine how the various facets of the immune responses induced by each may influence or counter-regulate that of the other.
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