Development and implementation of environmental photoelectron yield spectroscopy
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Environmental photoelectron yield spectroscopy (EPYS) is a novel, low vacuum, surface analysis technique that probes the electronic structure of solid-gas interfaces. Unlike its conventional, ultra high vacuum counterparts that interrogate ideal surfaces in non-realistic conditions, EPYS enables real-time characterisation of dynamic surface processes in semi-realistic, reactive gaseous environments. This capability is a requirement for the technological progress and fundamental understanding of processes in nanotechnology, materials physics, chemistry and bio-sciences. The system has been built and implemented from the outset of its existence at UTS. This project has contributed to the development of EPYS, and further developed a number of novel applications. Specifically, its application in elucidating the nature of four, fundamentally different physical phenomena is demonstrated. The thesis describes the origins of EPYS in ultra high vacuum photoelectron emission spectroscopy and the theoretical groundwork on which it is based. It also details the EPYS development, and demonstrates applications of the EPYS in the analysis of gas ionisation cascades, subsurface defects, surface termination, and adsorbate coverage. The value of this study is partly in the instrumentation development itself, but also in the demonstration of its application in studies of material systems responding to their environments.
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