Effects of prenatal cigarette smoke exposure on BDNF, PACAP, microglia and gliosis expression in the young male mouse brainstem

Publication Type:
Journal Article
NeuroToxicology, 2019, 74 pp. 40 - 46
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© 2019 Elsevier B.V. Cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy into infancy affects brain growth and development in both short and long term (into adulthood). Using a mouse model of pre- into post- natal cigarette smoke exposure (SE), we aimed to determine the effects on brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor TrkB, neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its receptor PAC1, and astrocyte (GFAP) and microglia (Iba-1) immunohistochemical expression, in seven nuclei of the medulla and the facial (FAC) nucleus of the pons. Male pups of dams exposed to two cigarettes (nicotine <1.2 mg, CO <15 mg) twice daily for six weeks prior to mating, during gestation and lactation (n = 5; SE), were compared to pups exposed to air under the same condition (n = 5; SHAM) at postnatal day 20. Expression changes were only evident for BDNF, TrkB and PAC1 and included decreased BDNF in the hypoglossal (XII) nucleus and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), increased TrkB in XII but decreased TrkB in the FAC, and increased PAC1 in 4 nuclei of the medulla including the NTS. These results suggest that the effect of SE on the brainstem are region and marker selective, affecting regions of respiratory control (XII and NTS), and restricted to the BDNF system and PAC1, with no effect on activation states of astrocytes or microglia.
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