Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Biphenylglyoxamide-Based Small Molecular Antimicrobial Peptide Mimics as Antibacterial Agents
- MDPI AG
- Publication Type:
- Journal Article
- International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21, (18), pp. 6789-6789
There has been an increasing interest in the development of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and their synthetic mimics as a novel class of antibiotics to overcome the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance. Recently, phenylglyoxamide-based small molecular AMP mimics have been identified as potential leads to treat bacterial infections. In this study, a new series of biphenylglyoxamide-based small molecular AMP mimics were synthesised from the ring-opening reaction of N-sulfonylisatin bearing a biphenyl backbone with a diamine, followed by the conversion into tertiary ammonium chloride, quaternary ammonium iodide and guanidinium hydrochloride salts. Structure–activity relationship studies of the analogues identified the octanesulfonyl group as being essential for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative antibacterial activity, while the biphenyl backbone was important for Gram-negative antibacterial activity. The most potent analogue was identified to be chloro-substituted quaternary ammonium iodide salt 15c, which possesses antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive (MIC against Staphylococcus aureus = 8 μM) and Gram-negative bacteria (MIC against Escherichia coli = 16 μM, Pseudomonas aeruginosa = 63 μM) and disrupted 35% of pre-established S. aureus biofilms at 32 μM. Cytoplasmic membrane permeability and tethered bilayer lipid membranes (tBLMs) studies suggested that 15c acts as a bacterial membrane disruptor. In addition, in vitro toxicity studies showed that the potent compounds are non-toxic against human cells at therapeutic dosages.