Sulfur Reduction Reaction in Lithium–Sulfur Batteries: Mechanisms, Catalysts, and Characterization

Publication Type:
Journal Article
Advanced Energy Materials, 2022, 12, (44), pp. 2202094
Issue Date:
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Lithium–sulfur batteries are one of the most promising alternatives for advanced battery systems due to the merits of extraordinary theoretical specific energy density, abundant resources, environmental friendliness, and high safety. However, the sluggish sulfur reduction reaction (SRR) kinetics results in poor sulfur utilization, which seriously hampers the electrochemical performance of Li–S batteries. It is critical to reveal the underlying reaction mechanisms and accelerate the SRR kinetics. Herein, the critical issues of SRR in Li–S batteries are reviewed. The conversion mechanisms and reaction pathways of sulfur reduction are initially introduced to give an overview of the SRR. Subsequently, recent advances in catalyst materials that can accelerate the SRR kinetics are summarized in detail, including carbon, metal compounds, metals, and single atoms. Besides, various characterization approaches for SRR are discussed, which can be divided into three categories: electrochemical measurements, spectroscopic techniques, and theoretical calculations. Finally, the conclusion and outlook part gives a summary and proposes several key points for future investigations on the mechanisms of the SRR and catalyst activities. This review can provide cutting-edge insights into the SRR in Li–S batteries.
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