中国入世的司法审查承诺及其行政诉讼法律制度改革 = Reform of China's judicial review system under the WTO regime

Publication Type:
Thesis
Issue Date:
2008
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本论文研究的中心问题是中国如何实现其向WTO作出的司法审查承诺。中国的WTO司法审查承诺,是一个有争论的话题。多数学者认为:"司法审查"就是"独立的司法审查",其理论基础是分权理论,中国没有实现WTO司法审查承诺的理论基础。实际上WTO要求中国需要在以下几个方面遵守司法审查承诺,司法审查独立于被授权执法的行政机关;司法审查程序客观和公正;扩大司法审查范围,充分保护公民的诉权。中国从行政诉讼法律制度中的七个方面——受案范围、诉权、行政审判、管辖、证据、司法审查标准和法律适用等方面,全面履行WTO的司法审查承诺。最高人民法院对这七项法律制度前后进行了多次改革,在诉权保护方面,正在逐步扩大司法审查范围;在管辖制度方面,采用提级管辖制度,试图避免地方政府对司法审查的干预;在证据制度方面,建立了法官的心证公开的证据规则,确保调查取证、质证、认证等程序公正;在法律适用方面,中国公布了《立法法》,最高人民法院公布了《关于审理行政案件适用法律规范问题的座谈会纪要》,以避免和解决法律冲突问题。本论文通过对这七项法律制度的分析,指出中国政府不可能按照美国式的三权分立理论改变中国,它必须根据其政治和法律体制的现状落实WTO的原则。因此,其改革方向在政治体制方面,深化司法体制改革,实现司法权与行政权的真正分离,缩小体制摩擦,保障司法审查客观和公正,增加司法审查的违宪审查功能;在行政诉讼法律制度方面,尽快修改《中华人民共和国行政诉讼法》,扩大司法审查的范围,充分保护当事人诉权。 This thesis examines the legal reforms that the Chinese government has been undertaking in order to fulfil its commitment to the WTO’s requirement of judicial review. Essentially this commitment requires China to comply with the WTO norms of ‘judicial review’ on three counts. Any agency involved in dispute settlement must be one other than entrusted with administrative enforcement. China is also required to improve its procedural process so as to insure effective response to WTO standard of objectivity in impartial court proceedings. Additionally, China must allow the review of all administrative actions that concern trade with WTO members as well as trade regulations and policies. As a new member of the WTO, China has moved quickly to comply with the WTO’s requirement, particularly in seven areas relating to the scope of judicial review, right of appeal, administrative trial proceeding, jurisdiction, evidence, the standard of review and the application of law. The Supreme People’s Court, for example, sponsored reforms that extended the scope of the judicial review system so as to protect citizens’ right of appeal, introduced a new transfer system so as to control for ‘local protectionism’, and enhanced the judge’s independent ability to authenticate ‘evidence.’ The thesis details progress in all of these areas while also identifying a number of outstanding areas of convergence that need to be addressed with greater emphasis, especially with respect to the operational separation of the judicial and administrative systems. An examination of all these aspects of reform when taken together suggests that China is not trying to change its national structures to align with the US separation of powers in order to realize the WTO judicial review commitment. The latter is progressively being met through reform within the existing political and legal system. Reform of judicial review is working towards independence from interested administrative agency. It has supported the introduction of a new standard of objective and impartial treatment of trial proceedings. There is a firm prospect for a deepening of this process through further revision to the Administrative Litigation Law.
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