Localised probing of precursor coefficients using electron beam induced deposition and etching
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Electron beam induced etching (EBIE) and deposition (EBID) are direct-write deposition techniques in which an electron beam is used for chemical precursor dissociation. Both techniques are capable of nanometer-scale resolution, but applications have been limited by poor understanding of the underlying reaction mechanisms and rate parameters. Here, a hybrid Continuum-Monte Carlo model has been designed and implemented, enabling modelling of the temporal and spatial evolution of nanostructures fabricated by EBID and EBIE. This hybrid model is used to perform Arrhenius analysis of the deposition rates of nanostructures grown by EBID and EBIE, from which both precursor desorption and diffusion rate parameters can be obtained. These parameters are of fundamental interest in physical chemistry and surface science fields but also are key to optimisation of chemical vapour deposition (CVD), EBID, EBIE, and related surface processing and nanofabrication techniques. Methods used to determine the activation energy and pre-factors for desorption and diffusion are described in detail. The limitations of these methods, growth conditions needed to minimise errors, and applications to the chemistry, physics and nanotechnology communities are also discussed.
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